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Introduction- The threat to LRRP operations posed by visual tracking teams and dog teams will be significant during some operations. Before deployment on a mission the team must learn the dog and visual tracking capabilities and tactics the enemy may use in the operational area.  An effort must be made to study terrain and vegetation types, local movement patterns, including those of civilians and domestic animals in order to best use the terrain and situation to the teams advantage.

Proper route selection and integration of passive counter tracking techniques into the plan will minimize the threat of detection. After detection the team must assume that in many situations highly skilled combat tracking teams may be brought in to hunt down and help destroy the team. Once the team is certain that it is being tracked it must make every effort to evade by employing a combination of passive and active counter tracking. These are methods not only to avoid and evade visual trackers since tracking dogs and visual trackers will often work together. If a dog loses the scent the dog team and the visual trackers will both work to regain contact with the evader. These techniques can be divided into two categories, passive and active counter tracking techniques.

I.  Passive counter tracking- These are measures taken by a team or individual evader prior to detection and active pursuit by enemy tracking teams. You must consider detection from civilians, accidental detection by enemy and aircraft overflights as possible threats to initial detection that will result in direct contact with the enemy or reporting of the teams presence in the area to enemy rear area security forces. Passive counter tracking should be incorporated into route selection decisions, for example loops into long halts, planned obstacle crossing points occupation of MSS and R&S, and movement in the objective area during reconnaissance.

A.  Tracking Considerations - Danger Areas

1. Open areas - Attempt to bypass if possible, if you must cross them use these procedures.  Observe area for not less than 5 minutes.  Select the best route, cross single file, step in the tracks of the man before you. Use edges of fields where a natural change in the composition of the ground exists, for example the area between two different crops, also use the areas where shadows will help conceal your tracks. When moving through crops stay within the rows and do not move perpendicular to the rows. Avoid crossing in areas with high grass when possible as these are difficult to counter track and require more time also dew trails may be left.  Grass bends in the direction of movement and tracks are easily spotted from the air, this will be easier to spot and you chance arousing attention. It is permissible to use streams and small trails to cross open areas because speed of crossing may be essential and counter tracking is minimal.

2. Trails - Take care to conceal entry and exit points, bend back grass/vegetation into a natural state cross single file, the last man should if it makes sense wipe out tracks on trail while covered by the second to last man.  In many cases brushed out tracks may be worse than uncamouflaged tracks. Select a hard surface crossing point, as soft wet areas tend to show more signs of the team’s presence.  Bend back and return vegetation to its natural state.  Avoid making false or obvious tracks until positive you are being tracked. Stepping across sideways may lay tracks that do not catch the eye.

3. Roads - The same counter tracking actions should be taken as for trails except that, on asphalt when conditions are wet, mud tracks may be left to counter this each member should carry 2 burlap type sandbags (these should have ties on them made from parachute cord).  These should be put on the feet when crossing roads during wet conditions and taken off immediately after.

4. Streams/Rivers - Select hard surface entry and exit points, avoid sliding down the bank on entry, do not make boot cuts into steep banks.  Try to select a hard surface crossing point in shallow streams as mud rises and may give your position away down stream to enemy elements.  Beware of wet equipment, as it will drip on exiting the water, causing for a muddy exit point and leaving an obvious sign.

5. General considerations- Evaders may in some situations use trails, roads, streams or rivers to break track, since sign left while moving on or along such an obstacle may be minimal and scent may also be lost, (particularly in water).  Hard surfaces may be used for movement whenever tactically feasible. Also, crossing and recrossing an obstacle more than once can be a method to throw the enemy off the trail.  However, since the enemy will also use these features for movement you may stand more of a chance of compromise.

B.  Halts

1. Short Halts - Short halts (0-10 mins) should be done standing (and are for listening only) to minimize tracks.  The objective here is to stop at irregular intervals during movement and listen at full alert.  You stand a good chance of detecting the enemy before he hears you. Do not lean against trees or take a knee, this will cause unnecessary sign to be left and a loss of general awareness.

2. Long Halts and Positions that Remain Occupied for longer periods - Long halts include any halts longer than 10 min or the hourly sit down halt.  Always loop or dog leg into these halts if it is to be occupied in daylight or during long periods. For long halts made during night movements that are only short duration it is often unnecessary to loop before occupation.  Loop downwind and make sure you can observe or hear anyone approaching on your route into the halt.  It may be necessary to make larger loops and post sentries before stopping for longer halts. Insure yourself a loop of sufficient size and time that you can withdraw if you observe the enemy tracking you. Be sure to loop uphill sentries when possible. One man, normally the last in the order of movement should have the responsibility of putting vegetation back into its natural state and making a litter check prior to departure from the halt

C.  Techniques Used to Avoid an Enemy Tracker- If the person tracking you is not an experienced tracker, some of the following techniques may throw him off, but even against experienced trackers these will at least slow pursuit possibly allowing the team to evade successfully.

1. Moving from a thick area to an open area- While moving in any given direction from a thick area to a more open area, walk past a big tree (3/4 foot or larger in diameter) toward the open vegetation for three to five paces and then walk backward to the forward side of the tree and make a 90 degree change in direction, passing the tree on its foreword side.  Step carefully and leave as little sign as possible.  If this is not the direction that you wish to go, change direction again 50 to 100 meters at another suitably sized located tree of appropriate size and repeat the previous steps.  The purpose is to draw the tracker into the open area where it is harder for it to track. This maneuver may lead the enemy-tracking element to search in the wrong area before it realizes that it has lost the track.


2. Moving through an area where obstacles can be anticipated - Proper navigation and previous study of the route will reveal upcoming obstacles, these must be crossed considering deception and counter tracking. Change direction near an anticipated obstacle (trail, road, stream) when moving through a known area and upon an established obstacle running at right angles to your line of march.  Before reaching the obstacle (100 meters) change direction and approach the obstacle at a 45 degree angle (see above ).  After arrival at the obstacle, continue foreword along the obstacle 20 to 30 meters.  Leave ground and top signs of your presence only if you are sure you are being followed; otherwise counter track to remove any sign. Then, walk backward to the point where you joined the obstacle. Go straight across the obstacle and leave no sign of your reentering the wood line.  Move off for 100 meters at a 45-degree angle, but this time on the other side of the obstacle and in the reverse of your approach march. The teams ATL should cover up all signs of your movement.  The purpose of this tactic is to draw the enemy tracking element along the easier going obstacle.  You have, by changing direction before reaching the obstacle, indicated that this is your new line of march.  If you are successful, the enemy trackers will cast even farther away in the wrong direction before it realizes that it has lost your track.

3. Laying a false trail - The team will normally conduct a short halt at a jump off point, the team leader will select the jump off point, it should be in light vegetation and hard ground thus making the deception difficult to spot. Two or three men may be used to lay a false trail down to or across a confusion point (river, stream, road) then backtrack. While the false trail is being laid the remainder of the team will remain at a jump off point providing security in a short halt. The false trail should be laid into soft ground areas or areas with thicker vegetation in order to leave reasonably clear footprints and other sign to draw the enemy into the deception. Continue this deception until on hard ground again or to a confusion point where the enemy is likely to lose the trail.  Select the area for jumpoff carefully to ensure that you have at least 20 to 30 meters of this deception.  This technique is normally used when approaching or leaving a stream or other obstacle, if a stream is used the, jump off point will normally be higher on a ridge in areas of lighter vegetation.  The purpose of leaving footprints is to get the enemy to look in a direction opposite to your line of march. Once the 2 or 3 men laying the false trail return walking backwards and the deception track is laid, the team jumps off the trail at a 90-degree angle. To add even further confusion to the enemy tracker, this tactic can be used several times to lay false trails before actually leaving a stream or other obstacle.


4. Approaching a Stream - When moving through an area where a stream can be anticipated, change direction before approaching a known stream and approach it at a 45-degree angle.  When entering the stream, turn in a false direction and move in the stream for at least 20 to 30 meters and then backtrack and move off into the intended direction. Changing direction before entering the stream can confuse enemy trackers.  When the enemy trackers enter the stream they should follow the false trail until the track is lost.  The enemy trackers will be in a false start position to try and relocate the track. Visual trackers will have to start examining both banks. They will begin to probe farther, and will get farther away. Following a false trail is time consuming. Therefore, setting up a false trail is a good delaying tactic that is easy to do and does not require much time.  When moving along a stream and using it as a deception technique, the fact that you are in the stream will slow down anyone in pursuit. Trip wire activated devices may be laid below the waterline if you are being actively tracked.  Even greater success can be achieved by entering and leaving the stream carefully.  Some of the following points will also aid in eluding enemy trackers. Try to stay in the center of the stream and in deep water. Watch for rocks or roots near the banks that are not covered with moss or vegetation and then leave the stream at this point sign will not be left. Consider walking out backward on soft ground, as a deception then jumping off later on harder ground. One way to exit the stream may be to walk up small, vegetation-covered tributaries replacing the vegetation in its natural position to leave the line of march. Another method of breaking track is to walk downstream until coming to a larger waterway (river or creek), then depart on a log or swim for a period leaving the waterway using one of the above techniques. Using a stream or river to employ a deception technique is one of the best ways to slow down and lose an enemy tracking team.  The deception starts about 100 meters from the stream and the successful completion of the tactic is to ensure that the tracker does not know where the team exited from the stream.



5. Box Technique - This is a simple and effective method to use during active and passive counter tracking and it takes very little practice to employ. The team makes a series of 90-degree turns forming a box.  At this point you may do any one of several things.  You may wait in ambush for; walk backwards across your old trail, if the vegetation and soil is such that it is impossible to hide your tracks; or you may continue on.  When you move out, after having formed the first box, move again and form another box.  By forming these boxes, the team can ambush the pursuers and will definitely confuse any trackers as to your direction of march.  It will also discourage the enemy if you occasionally booby-trap your back trail once active counter tracking becomes necessary.  You can maintain a general compass heading without the enemy becoming aware of your route. Do not continually make the boxes the same size or continually turn to the right or left. Never set a definite pattern of movement.

6. Figure Eight Technique - The figure eight technique is very similar to the box technique in that you do basically the same thing, except here you make circles instead of squares. The box and figure eight techniques should be used in combination to avoid setting patterns, to lay false trails in combination and to jump off at points where it is difficult to find the sign. In both box and figure eight techniques, the size of the squares or circles will depend on the terrain and vegetation.

7. Varied Direction of March - This technique used along with the navigational plan is another effective method to use in deception and takes very little practice to employ. It is especially good in featureless terrain, swamps, and flat ground. The team changes direction of movement in a series of angular movements.  For example, the team will make an angle move to change direction such as 30 degrees, 45 degrees, 70 degrees for a hundred or so meters each, then do it again to confuse the enemy. This causes the teams direction of march to be constantly varied and its exact march objective difficult to determine, making it difficult for the enemy to position blocking forces and ambushes in the teams path.







8. Turn Technique - The turn technique is a simple method of changing the route of march in 90-degree turns for a distance of a few hundred or so meters. If the turns are made carefully the team may cause the enemy to lose the trail momentarily when the overshoot the last sign and are forced to cast out in search for it, this will gain valuable evasion time.

9. Team Jump Off Technique - The team jump off technique is an effective method that requires very little practice to employ.  This technique should be employed to leave the trail on high ground which is normally lighter vegetation and harder underfoot and used with a false trail laid into softer low ground.  The team stops in place and, on command, moves left or right of the present route. Each member moves as carefully as possible to prevent making a trail or leaving signs to the flank for a distance of 20 to 30 meters and then starts a new route of march.  The team leader should send 2 or 3 men ahead to make a false trail for 30 to 50 meters before using the jumpoff method. Team members have to be careful not to leave signs as they move to the flank. This technique is used to occupy an immediate ambush carried out when moving on a trail.  An active counter tracking variation of this technique is called break away groups in which a portion of the team (two or three man groups) leaves the team line of march while the remainder of the team continues and drops off several hundred meters later. Soon the tracking team is only following a portion of the team or is forced to divide itself. The split teams will continue evasion and RV later at a designated point.

Note: Never set a pattern. If one technique does not work, change to another, they are best used in combination. Basic things such as wearing the footwear acceptable in the area instead of US jungle boots may make all the difference in your tracks drawing attention.

II.  Active countertracking measures-These techniques are used by the team once it is certain the enemy is tracking them.  These include all passive measures as well as back trail mine laying boobytrapping and ambush techniques. When being tracked by trained, persistent enemy trackers (those you know are there either by hearing or seeing them), the best bet is to try to outrun and outdistance by proper application of countertracking movement techniques or double back and ambush them, depending on their strength and yours.


A.  Movement techniques- The passive counter tracking movement techniques will continue along with some additional techniques. The most important thing is to apply the basic principle that haste makes waste

to counter tracking movement since fast movement will create more sign make more noise and enable the team to make mistakes.  It may be advisable to initially move out of the immediate are of the contact quickly before reaction forces arrive on the scene but after that the team should slow down and start to use deception and countertracking including all active and passive measures. The best tactics are those that outthink the enemy instead of trying to blindly outrun him. The enemy trackers can anticipate evasion objectives if the teams movements are sloppy then leapfrog trackers and reaction forces forward to cut for sign or establish OP/LPs, ambushes and possibly blocking positions. Several techniques which may not be employed in normal patrolling may need to be used after contact has been made and enemy trackers are though to be in pursuit so that the team may avoid being followed. The first of these is to consider joining and moving on hard surface roads or trails where sign may be difficult to find for the trackers. Jumping off at a hard surface area or water source will follow movement on these hard surfaces. Tracks may be mixed with and/or covered with those of the civilian population if the team wears indigenous footwear.

One technique may be to carry multiple sets of footwear and change after executing a movement technique them in order to further confuse a follow-up. 

B. Use of devices in active countertracking

1. Use of time delay claymores- All claymores should be dual primed for time delay, with varying delays of 30 seconds to 2 minutes.  During a mission claymore bandoleers should be carried (with fastex) on outside of the rucksack, so that they may be quickly emplaced immediately after contact is broken, possibly at a rally point. The legs of the claymore should be sticking out of the bandoleer to speed emplacement.  Emplace on the back trail aimed at the probable approach route of enemy tracking teams with varying delays.  CS powder may be taped in an MRE bag to the mine to increase its effectiveness.  During snow conditions the claymore should be employed on trees so that it is above the snow line. They may be bungied to trees in all environments to increase the killing area.



2. The M-86 pursuit deterrent munition -The PDM is specifically designed for the purpose of preventing follow up and is employed much the same as a delay claymore. The M-86-PDM is a hand emplaced FASCAM submunition type anti personnel mine, once emplaced and armed, after 1 minute 7 trip wires deploy out to 20 feet in different directions, any contact with a tripwire will cause initiation of the mine. This mine also comes equipped with a self destruct and is automatically detonated after 5 hours.





3. WP and incendiary Grenades -These when thrown on the back trail can create a wall of flame that will stop pursuit and blind night vision. These may also be used these to start brush fires to aid your escape.

4. Riot Control Agents -CS grenades, or CS powder may also be used and will probably force a following enemy to mask up, thus hampering his vision and communication between individuals. This will force him to slow down or end pursuit and bypass effected area These may be employed as back trail boobytraps and/or in conjunction with delay devices (i.e. delay claymores).  Riot control agents will have only a momentary effect on dogs and will again serve as a confirmation to the handler. Riot control agents should only be used when being actively tracked. They can rigged to a tree for trip activation.

5. Other devices- Mines such as the M16A1 anti personnel mine can be used effectively as back trail boobytraps in either the trip wire or pressure detonated mode. Claymores may also be employed in an electrically fired trip wire activated mechanical ambush, by using a battery source and insulator. Other simple devices may be improvised such as grenades Use of mines and other devices in active counter tracking- During active counter tracking mines and other devices are an effective way to slow or stop enemy pursuit without exposing the team in a direct contact. When practical they should be expertly concealed and their location recorded accurately for later reporting so that they may be cleared if friendlies later occupy the area.

Note - Even if no casualties are caused all of the above are effective in destroying enemy morale and increasing his willingness to end pursuit of the team.  These devices are best used in combination with each other.


B.  The loop ambush drill- This should be a harassment type ambush, with a quick fire fight then an immediate withdrawal to the rear.  This type ambush is best set up after crossing a danger area.  This gives you an indication of enemy approach, leaves them without cover and gives you a good field of fire.  Start by moving across kill zone at a 45-degree angle, lay a definite but not overly obvious track. Move uphill if possible continue moving at the oblique through the desired kill zone until your tracks cannot be seen from the proposed kill zone. Move up, drop rucksacks and remove claymores, move on line parallel to kill zone and advance foreword until kill zone is visible. Quickly select positions with good cover and, most importantly concealment. The men on the extreme flanks should face out to provide cover to the flanks; claymores should be emplaced in the command detonation mode if time is available. The 2 and 5 man emplace claymores when used. Every team member should have at least two extra magazines pulled out of pouches and readied for quick magazine changes. Grenades may be used, particularly to cover withdrawal after ambush is executed. CS and WP grenades are best for this task. Violent fire is normally used to initiate the ambush. 2 or 3 magazines are fired by each man and fragmentation grenades thrown. On a designated signal the team must withdraw using rearward bounding. Fire and maneuver by alpha and bravo teams using normal break contact IAD's to the rally point previously designated (normally the rucksack cache). Time delay claymores may be employed on the ambush line, and techniques initiated during withdrawal or at the rally point. Subsequent ambushes may be used but be aware not to set patterns. 





Summary- A trained tracking team can learn a lot from the signs left by a team or evaders including direction of march, number in a group, age of track, speed of travel, sex, load being carried. Visual trackers and dog tracking teams are a considerable threat, that must be countered.


Introduction- As LRRP Teams or individual evaders you will always be exposed to potential compromise by dogs.  There are two sources of this threat, first, dogs used by the local civilian populace and second, the dogs used by enemy rear area security forces. The potential evader, must know the capabilities of dogs, the methods of operation and tracking tactics used by a potential enemy and be able to effectively employ dog evasion techniques.

I.  Dog characteristics

A.  Physical Characteristics-Dogs Vary in size and shape, the larger breeds of dogs are generally used for military and police type work.  Dogs such as the Doberman, Rottweiler, German Shepherd, etc are among some of the most common. BloodHounds, Labrador and other dogs are commonly used as tracker dogs in some parts of the world. Properly trained, a dog can usually very effectively pursue a man for up to eight hours depending on terrain and climate. Big dogs may run at speeds of 30 - 40 miles an hour for about 100m before slowing down.  Their steady speed may be 8 - 10 mph; the Handler, Visual Tracking Teams and follow-up forces limit speed. Biting capabilities of military type dogs may exert pressure from 700 to 1300 pounds per square inch and can inflict serious wounds.

B.  Mental Characteristics-Dogs are naturally inquisitive, but have short attention spans. Humans must interpret the dog’s reactions.  This is a disadvantage to the handler as he may misinterpret the dog’s reactions.

C.  Sensory Characteristics-

1. Sight- Dogs are colorblind and see only in shades of green/gray.  It has difficulty in discerning static objects at a distance of more than fifty yards. A dog’s vision is excellent for detecting movement. A dog's night vision is probably better than a man's.                                                                                      

2. Hearing- The dog can hear much quieter sounds than a human.  It has a greater power of locating the source of sound and can hear noises of a much higher frequency than those detected by a man.  The squeaks and scratches produced by the metal to metal contact on LBEs or rucksacks. These sounds that are normally unheard by a moving man during his movement may be heard by a dog quite easily.

3. Scent- The dog tracks a combination of scents given off from the body and clothing of an individual or group together with those released by the bruising of vegetation or the crushing of insects.  This combination is known as the “scent picture”.

a. The dog becomes conscious of the scent through the air it breathes coming in contact with the membranes lining the nose.  It follows therefore that the degree of detection is directly related to the concentration of the scent in the air.  This concentration varies with the rate of evaporation, air movement (wind or lack of it) and type of terrain over which the trail is laid.

b. The “scent picture” is specific for an individual or group of individuals and once a dog has started to track, it can differentiate between the scent of the target individual and the scent of other people or animals that may cross the track.

c. The scent picture is composed of-

1) Objects themselves (animate and inanimate)

2) Chemical smells associated with the object: soap, after-shave, boot polish, oil   on a gun. Human smells associated with inanimate objects, those objects thrown away or hidden.

3) Disturbance of the environment around an object or caused by its passage (freshly dug earth, disturbed dust, broken vegetation, smells around positions, crushed vegetation and ground disturbed by footfalls).

d. Factors affecting the scent picture:

1) Time - Under reasonable conditions, trained tracker dogs can commence tracking on a 24-hour cold scent and follow it over varying terrain.  The fresher the scent (time factor), the larger the number of evaders (concentration of scent) and the faster they attempt to escape (increase of body odor, the more chance of success).

2) Other factors that increase the dog’s chances of success are

a) Air and ground temperatures approximately equal.

b) A mild humid day with slow evaporation.

c) Ground overshadowed by trees, slowing evaporation and wind dispersal of scent.                                        

d) An unclean enemy, heavy body odor, heavy sweating produced by pursuit.                                             

e) Tracking along frozen or thawing ground retains scent better and longer.

f) Early morning and early evening tracking.

3) Items deliberately left on the trail- These will often only serve as confirmation to the handler that the dog is tracking. Contrary to what some       people say CS powder, pepper spray, pepper or food should not be left on the back trail since the dog will remain reasonably unaffected by them, and will basically act as a reward for the dog, boosting both the dogs and handlers confidence.                                                                                        

4) Factors which adversely affect the scent picture include:

a) Heavy rain may drive scent into the ground, and obliterate visual sign.

b) Strong wind especially in open areas will disperse the scent.   

c) Hot sun with rapid evaporation.

d) Crowded areas-areas used by other people and animals will confuse   visual trackers and possibly new scents may distract a poorly trained dog.

e) Running water, the deeper it is the more difficult for the dog to track.

f) Night tracking - since the handler must read the dog with NVGs or flashlights, and visual tracking is nearly impossible.                          

g) Areas with pollution- Oils used to make paved roads, carbon monoxide from car exhaust, pollution along railroad lines will irritate the dogs nose and kill the scent quickly.                

II.  Dog types

A.  Domestic Animals - are used by people all over the world and will normally alert their master to any foreign presence which could result in chance compromise. Wherever there are people living there will most likely be dogs.

B.  Working dogs - These are guard and tracker type dogs used by various Police, Military, Border Troops units for rear area security work.

1. Guard dogs- work on air scent and sight, they may be used to prevent infiltration, counter reconnaissance and prevent escape. They may be employed:

a. Guarding employment methods

1) Loose in a compound guarding airfields, POL dumps, motor pools etc.

2) On a running wire stretched across a line of approaches to an objective or a border.

3) On a leash with a handler as static sentry or listening post.

4) Patrolling with a security force.

5) Guarding prisoners and confinement areas, and may even be placed into dog runs (an area between two fences).

6) Searching for hidden objects or persons in vehicles, trains and boats at border crossings, ports, or vehicle checkpoints.

Note:  Guard dogs may or may not be trained to attack intruders and in some cases may be trained to   silently alert the handler instead of barking.

b. Countering the guard dog threat-The team may encounter the guard dog threat while conducting a close target reconnaissance, evasion through enemy lines or border defenses and when attempting escape from a POW compound.

c. Avoiding detection by guard dogs- Keep as low to the ground as feasible during movement, balance speed versus risk of being seen heard or smelt by dogs. Keeping low and using obstacles in between you and the dog will reduce the blown scent.  Consider the changes in wind direction caused by buildings and other obstacles; try to use a downwind approach when possible. The movement should be slow to reduce sweating, and you should keep all clothing fastened. An approach from areas routinely used by other humans or with other pollution type smells may help to lessen the effectiveness of the dog and awareness of the handler.

d. Actions on compromise by guard dogs while on patrol and armed- If compromised while armed like during a close target reconnaissance and some evasion situations, the correct procedure is usually to kill the dog and accompanying troops. For this the team could use either suppressed weapons or use full force immediate action drills depending on the level of compromise and number of enemy encountered.

e. Actions on compromise by guard dogs while an escaping POW or evader with limited equipment-There are some situations in which contact with guard dogs can be anticipated, but may be difficult to avoid. A couple examples of this are escaping captivity from a POW camp guarded by dogs or when crossing a border with sentry dog runs (dogs on chain and cable. As an escaping POW you will have access to only limited improvised weapons, under these circumstances the evader should prepare himself to be bitten by the dog and kill the dog. Wrap your weak arm with a soft layer first using clothing, cut up blankets or bandages, then a hard layer plastic, cardboard or wood.  Then wrap another soft layer over the hard layer. The outer soft layer will enable the dog to grip the arm, the hard layer will prevent damage from the dog’s teeth (i.e. flesh wound) and the inner soft layer will cushion the arm against the crushing power of the dog’s jaws. If detected attempt to evade, if in close contact either surrender if confronted with dogs and armed guards or fight off the dogs attack using the following procedures. If cornered by the dog, the dog will normally charge you don't stand still change position at the last moment this will cause the dog to slow down losing it's momentum. Offer the dog your padded arm, maintain balance. Once the dog bites the padded arm, pull it back slightly.  This will cause the dog to tighten its grip on the padded arm. Most guard dogs are trained not to release, but will attack a hand with a weapon in it. Do not expose the weapon to the dog until he has bitten the padded arm, since some dogs are trained to go for the weapon.  Expose the dog’s neck and head then stab at the dog’s vital areas with knife or improvised weapon with slashing motion. Don't try to stab down at the dogs head it will release and attack the armed hand. If you stab the dog in the abdomen it may still have enough fight left to do some damage to you.


Wrap arm with coat if necessary


Prep weak arm with a soft layer closest to arm, covered by a hard (bite proof) layer, with a soft layer for grip on the outside


Improvised weapon or knife kept hidden until the dog bites sleeve





2. Tracker Dogs and combat tracking team-This is the most dangerous type of dog to a team.  The handler and dog are a specially trained team; they are trained specifically for use in tactical patrolling.  Tracker dogs are not trained to be vicious but instead are required to be quiet at all times.  The dog is almost always run on a leash under direct control of a handler. Tracker dogs will normally be employed with visual tracking teams and at least a squad size covering/exploitation force. This force is normally referred to as a combat tracking team. Visual trackers are used in threes normally, and normally move a short distance behind the dog team, followed by the covering/exploitation force.  The dog will indicate silently to its handler when it is nearing the quarry.  Once the dog has given such an indication, it has done its job and is normally taken off the track.  Then the covering/exploitation force will close with and destroy/capture the evader or team.  If the dog loses the scent, visual trackers and the dog team are used in combination to regain the track. The combat tracking team will be linked by radio to other larger units, that may be used to exploit a contact with the team by establishing ambushes, blocking positions and reinforcement of the combat tracking team. Multiple combat tracking teams may be employed as reliefs when available.

a. Actions if detected by tracker dogs-A tracking dog will alert the handler and be taken off the track once the handler realizes the evading element is in close proximity. Other dogs may be ignored entirely by handlers or owners if the following actions are carried out before the team is detected by humans.

1) When sighted - freeze, or withdraw slowly depending on the situation.

2) When heard - Freeze, avoid movement, dogs have excellent hearing and more movement will cue the dog  in, where as remaining still may allow the dog to lose interest.

3) When smelt - Keep still, the dog may soon become bored and the handler could misinterpret a dog’s reaction as a false point.

b. Actions for evading a tracker dog team- Used before detection and after contact is made and broken. If time is short, the most important factor is to increase the distance between you and the dog, team and follow-up element. Use of speed and distance remains one of the best methods of breaking contact. Climb up and jump down vertical features (fences, steep banks, and trees) possibly climbing each feature                 several times in different places. Consider running through animal trails and or splitting up to rendezvous later. Evade down wind if possible. Consider open areas for evasion, since blown scent, higher wind dispersion of scent, and exposure to direct sunlight, will make all dog and visual tracking more difficult. Use rough terrain, thick vegetation; weave in between trees in order to foul a leashed dog.  Use of certain features can cause the dog to lose the track. Water; loose sand, rocky terrain or hard surface roads and trails. Use backtracking with false trails constantly. Do not throw away articles to throw off the dog, this will only act as confirmation to the handler that his dog  is tracking, dogs are routinely rewarded after finding articles during training, in combat this boosts the confidence of both dog and handler. If  it is necessary to dispose of bodily wastes or rubbish sink in water when possible.

c. Action if detected and compromised by the tracker dog team-Either continue evasion by increasing speed, putting time and distance between you and the tracking team or if in close contact break contact using normal IAD’s attempt to eliminate the dog team and visual trackers of the enemy tracking team. The loop ambush may be employed for this purpose. After detection and breaking contact employ booby traps, and delay devices on the back trail. At the very least it will slow any pursuit considerably.

Summary-Consider these techniques carefully. Proper route selection and employment of counter tracking will go a long way to avoiding detection all together, enabling the team to accomplish it’s mission. Every team must implement a viable counter tracking SOP and make sure that it is enforced on every mission. Tracking teams and dogs may be defeated they are not infallible. All of these deceptions will delay a combat tracking team and in some cases will allow the team to escape detection all together.